Application of Joint Probability principles in flood estimation using Monte Carlo simulation technique can apply the majority of design data and flood estimation models. Design flood estimation is one of the major steps in the design and sizing of hydraulic structures. Design rainfall which cause to design flood must have some characteristics which one of them is distribution of rainfall during the rainy period which so-called design rainfall temporal pattern. Design rainfall temporal pattern is a major source of uncertainty in rainfall-based design flood estimation methods. In this study, Monte Carlo simulation technique which is based on the Joint Probability Approach applied to determine probability-distributed rainfall temporal pattern in Karaj Dam watershed, Iran. Also, this is the first time that RORB model is used in Iran also Joint Probability Approach and Monte Carlo simulation technique have not ever applied in Iran to extract rainfall temporal patterns.
THE EFFECT OF CEMENT TYPE ON CORROSION RESISTANCE OF REINFORCEMENT
In this study, an experimental study was carried out to decrease the corrosion resistance of reinforced steels. The composite cement were prepared by using Portland cement clinker, ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) and ground basaltic pumice (GBP). Specimens were weighted to determine the corrosion effects in the sense of weight loss. Prepared mortar was sand in 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm dimensional cubic structure. Four deformed and plain steel rounded bars were placed into the structure. The obtained concrete blocks were put into natural seawater. After 3 years period, concrete blocks were crushed and steel bars were withdrawn. Surface of the bars are cleaned carefully and put into 3% HCl solution. After that, corrosion rate was determined by weighting the reinforcement. Corrosion resistance is increased if the rate of additives is increased. Intergrinding and separate grinding plays and important role in corrosion of reinforcement steel. Specimens, prepared by intergrinding, have lower corrosion than separate grinding specimens. There is a close relationship between fineness of cement and reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion rate decreases if the fineness of cement increases.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW OVER STEPPED SPILLWAYS
Rasoul Daneshfaraz, Sina Sadeghfam, Mahsa H. Kashani
In this study, flow over four types of stepped spillways with different step configurations is simulated using the FLUENT software. The numerical analysis is carried out by using three turbulence models: (a) standard k-epsilon model, (b) Renormalized Group Theory k-epsilon (RNG) model and (c) k-omega model. These models are verified by comparing the results obtained with the experimental ones in terms of water surface profiles using the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) criterion. Moreover, the rate of energy dissipation was determined for the stepped spillways. The results obtained showed that the models have acceptable error values. However, the performance of the RNG k-epsilon model was in close agreement with the experimental ones for all types of the spillways. Furthermore, the results proved the high capability of the stepped spillway with bigger steps to dissipate energy significantly. This is due to creating large vortexes by using such spillways.
A REVIEW OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR POST-DISASTER RECONSTRUCTION PROJECT: FROM INTERNATIONAL NGOs (INGOs) PERSPECTIVE
Dzulkarnaen Ismail, Taksiah A Majid, Ruhizal Roosli, Hj Noorazam Ab Samah
Post-disaster reconstruction (PDR) is a complex and highly demanding process that involves a number of different and well-coordinated courses of action. Therefore, it is vital that these complex activities are well planned. The objective of this research is to study the post-disaster reconstruction complexity, the phases of PDR, the project classification, the parties involved in PDR, the needs of project management approach on PDR, and suggest the most critical success factors highlighted by previous authors in this field. The goal of this research is to improve project management practice in PDR project specifically for International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs) that participate in the phase of Post-Disaster Reconstruction.